Daily Answer Writing And Mentorship Program
Q: Discuss the role of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in building resilience and reducing the impact of natural disasters in India. (10 Marks, 150 Words)
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Around 59 per cent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of moderate to very high intensity; over 12 percent of its land is prone to floods and river erosion; close to 5,700 km of the 7,516 km long coastline is vulnerable to cyclones and tsunamis; 68 per cent of the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought and hilly areas are at risk from landslides and avalanches.
In this context, Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) gains significance in a disaster-prone country like India. DRR is that
part of the broader Disaster Management Cycle that aims to reduce the risks of disaster occurrence through
enhancing the resilience of communities and societies to natural and human-made disasters through risk assessment, preparedness, mitigation, and capacity-building efforts.
Need for DRR in India:
· Disproportionate effects on developing countries: Mortality and economic losses from disasters become
disproportionately higher for developing countries like India owing to mitigation and recovery costs bearing a
greater proportion of the country’s resources.
· High Incidence: India ranks among the top three countries in the world that bore the maximum brunt of natural
disasters in recent years.
· High Impact on Human Life: As per UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, around 79,732 people lost their lives,
and 108 crore people were affected in 321 incidents of natural disasters in India between 2000-2019.
· Huge Economic Costs: As per the Weather, Climate & Catastrophe Insight Report, the global economy suffered a
loss of $232 billion due to natural disasters in 2019, out of which, India’s losses form a sizable part.
Significance of DRR for India:
· Promotes better understanding of disaster risk: Systematic study and analysis of disaster risk and vulnerabilities
shall help in better understanding of risk profile of any marked area.
· Strengthens disaster management governance: It shall promote more effective integration of disaster risk
knowledge into sustainable development policies, planning and programming at all levels of governance.
· Encourages investment in disaster reduction for resilience: By advocating for development and strengthening
of institutions and mechanisms at all levels, especially community level, it can contribute to building disaster
· Enhances disaster preparedness: It involves systematic incorporation of risk reduction approaches into the
design and implementation of emergency preparedness, response, and recovery programs in the reconstruction
of affected communities.
India has aligned its National Disaster Management Plan with the approaches promoted globally by the United
Nations, in particular the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. In addition, India recently
adopted the Prime Minister’s ten-point agenda on Disaster Risk Reduction in India.