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Q: Examine the relationship between terrorism and organized crime. Discuss international efforts to combat these interconnected threats. (10 Marks, 150 Words)

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Terrorism is a form of violent and unlawful action that involves the use or threat of violence with the intention of instilling fear, intimidating societies for political, ideological, or religious purposes. It often targets innocent individuals or property to create widespread panic and destabilize societies.
Organized crime is any crime committed by a group of people, who interact in a structured manner for the purpose of committing unlawful activities.

Relationship between Terrorism and Organized crime:
· Both Terror groups and organised crime syndicates challenge the authority of the state and infuse feeling of insecurity among citizens.
· Provides Funding: Organised crime syndicates provide funds to the terror groups for carrying out its activities, as seen during 1993 Mumbai blasts.
· Provides Manpower: Since organised groups have surplus manpower, they provide it to terror groups for supplying explosives, money, shelter etc.
· Provides cross-border linkages: For transfer of funds through hawala, narcotics trade etc. across the borders.
· Organised crime prospers in an environment of fear and lawless situation, created by terrorist activities.

International efforts for combatting:
· UN Security Council (UNSC) Counter Terrorism Committee (CTC): It was established by UNSC resolution
1373 (2001) in the wake of the 11 September terrorist attacks in the United States. It is tasked with monitoring the implementation of steps to enhance countries’ legal and institutional counter-terrorism abilities, at every level, locally and internationally.
· The Da’esh and Al Qaeda Sanctions Committee or 1267 sanctions committee of the UNSC to designate organizations and individuals as global terrorist.
· Financial Action Task Force to act against nations supporting and harbouring terrorists.
· United Nations Global Counter Terrorism Strategy (GCTS) was adopted by consensus in 2006. sends a clear message that terrorism is unacceptable in all its forms and manifestations.

  • UN Counter-Terrorism Centre (UNCCT) under UN Office of Counterterrorism (UNOCT) promotes
    international cooperation in fight against terrorism and supports the member states to implement the Global
    Counter-Terrorism Strategy.
    · The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, adopted by General Assembly resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000 to fight against transnational organized crime.
    · The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, composed of a network of law enforcement, governance, and development practitioners, with the objective of developing innovative strategies and
    responses to organized crime.
    · Intelligence sharing among nations to prevent terror related incidents.
    · Anti-terrorism cooperation, counter terrorism exercises have become key aspect of bilateral and multilateral

There is a need to depoliticize these efforts and platform and need to tackle it from the perspective of humanity, rather than geopolitical calculations.