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Q: Cyber-attacks have emerged as a major threat to internal security. Highlight the challenges associated with cyber-attacks in the context of national security. (15 Marks, 250 Words)

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Cyber threats are harmful activities committed with the intent of destroying, stealing, or disrupting data and digital life in general. Computer viruses, data breaches, and Denial of Service (DoS) assaults are examples of these risks.

Cyber-attacks as threat to internal security:
· Cyber terrorism: A premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems,
computer programs, and data which results in violence. Or financial damages.
· Stealing digital Data: Personal and professional data like customer information and intellectual property
rights can result in loss of hundreds of crores to the businesses and loss of trust of customers.
· Stealing personal data of citizens of a country and using them to target specific groups, manipulating elections
· Cyber warfare: The actions by any nation or international organization to attack and attempt to damage
another nation’s computers or information networks.
· Critical Infrastructure: Hacking critical infrastructure like nuclear power plants, defense installation controls
and commands, transport and energy infrastructure can create havoc to the economy and security of nation.

Challenges associated with cyber-attacks:
· Lack of specialists: Globally, India ranks 2nd in terms of the number of Internet users after China (Internet
World Stats, 2017). However, India has limited of cyber-security specialists, when compared to internet user
· Lack of robust law enforcement mechanisms: India’s approach to cyber security has so far been ad hoc and
unsystematic. Despite several agencies, policies and initiatives, their implementation has been far from
· Lack of Coordination: Due to the existence of too many agencies with overlapping functions in the field of
cyber security, coordination between these agencies is poor.
· National cyber security policy, 2013 has not been updated despite significant changes in the cyber security
environment, digital penetration, and associated threats.
· Private sector participation remains limited in India’s cybersecurity structures.
· Import dependence on cyber and communication equipment makes them vulnerable to cyberattacks.


To tackle these threats recent initiatives like booting domestic manufacturing and import from “trusted sources”,
NCIIPC, CERT-IN, NCCC, Cyber Surakshit Bharat Initiative and Cyber Crisis Management Plan have been launched to
prevent, respond, and swiftly mitigate cyber-attacks.