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Q: Elaborate on the functioning of quantum computers, highlight the hurdles for achieving scalable progress in this technology. Also. emphasize the importance of National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications (NM-QTA). (15 Marks, 250 words)


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Quantum computing merges quantum mechanics, information theory, and computer science. It utilizes quantum phenomena like superposition, entanglement, and tunnelling for rapid computation. Quantum bits (qubits) encode information, capable of being both 1 and 0 simultaneously. Thousands of entangled qubits allow parallel calculations.

However, quantum computing faces challenges:

  • Quantum State Conversion: Creating quantum states from classical data remains a challenge.
  • Fan-Out Challenge: Scaling qubit numbers within a chip requires intricate control setups, currently making systems large.
  • Loss of Coherence: External interactions like vibrations and temperature fluctuations can destroy quantum properties.
  • Qubit Quality: Errors in the physical system can lead to incorrect outputs.
  • Space Constraint: Complex error correction algorithms consume qubits, leaving fewer for computation.


The National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications (NM-QTA), funded at Rs 8000 Crore, holds significance as it:

  • Secures Communications: Quantum technologies can revolutionize computation, communication, and encryption, enhancing communication security and financial transactions.
  • Diverse Applications: From aerospace to agriculture, quantum tech aids sectors like simulations, cyber security, manufacturing, health, and education.
  • Boosts Research: The mission promotes fundamental science, technology development, innovation, startups, and human resources, aligned with national priorities.
  • Economic Growth: By fostering innovation, employment, and economic progress, the mission enhances the nation’s quality of life.
  • Global Competitiveness: In a transformed geopolitical landscape, embracing disruptive technologies like quantum computing ensures a competitive edge.


Through the NM-QTA, India aligns with emerging technological trends, positioning itself at the forefront of quantum technology development.