logotype

GET IN TOUCH

Please enter a 10-digit phone number.

The UPSC CSE History Optional Foundation Course at LevelUp IAS is designed to provide time bound and  comprehensive coverage of the History syllabus with a detailed focus on both Paper I and Paper II. Under the guidance of Nikhil Sheth and Vishal Singh, this course aims to equip aspirants with the knowledge, analytical skills, and answer-writing techniques necessary to score high marks in UPSC History Optional.

The focus is on conceptual understanding and scorability in the History optional by leveraging updated historiography, effective teaching methods, intensive answer writing practice, discussion of PYQs and personalised mentoring.

Course Fee

   Offline Mode: ₹ 47,000
   Online Mode: ₹ 45,000

Comprehensive GS Foundation Program + History Optional

Course Fee

   Offline Mode: ₹ 1,47,000 1,20,000
   Online Mode: ₹ 1,35,000 1,10,000

Queries? Connect 1-1 with Nikhil sir & Vishal sir

Why should you join LevelUp IAS for History Optional?

Innovative Two Faculty System: 

Our dual-faculty approach ensures specialised and equal attention to both Paper I (Ancient and Medieval India) and Paper II (Modern India and World History). Nikhil Sheth and Vishal Singh bring their expertise and unique teaching styles to cover the vast syllabus effectively.

Personalised Attention and Mentoring:

We believe in providing personalised guidance to each student, addressing their specific needs and challenges. Regular one-on-one mentoring sessions help aspirants stay on track and overcome any hurdles.

Upgraded Historiography and Debates: 

Stay updated with the latest historiographical debates and interpretations. Our program incorporates recent research and scholarly discussions to keep you abreast of current trends in historical study.

PYQ Analysis and Discussion:

Thorough analysis and discussion of Previous Years’ Questions (PYQs) to understand trends, identify important topics, and develop effective answering techniques.

In-Class Answer Writing: 

Master the art of answer writing with in-class practice sessions. We focus on structuring answers, integrating historiography, and using maps effectively to enhance the quality of your responses.

Test Series Included in the Foundation program: 

Our comprehensive test series simulates the actual exam environment, providing regular assessments to track your progress and identify areas for improvement.

Conceptual Clarity and Progressive Learning: 

We focus on building a strong conceptual foundation, ensuring the usability of information in exams through high-scoring answers. Our approach gradually builds from NCERT to UPSC CSE level content.

Dedicated Mapping Sessions: 

Specially designed mapping sessions to help students master the art of map-based questions, which are crucial for scoring high in the History optional.

Program Inclusions

Key Features

Other Details

Note

Syllabus

  1. Comprehensive Coverage of Syllabus: Detailed lectures and notes covering the entire syllabus of both Paper I and Paper II.
  2. Class Handouts, Notes, and Reference Material: Up-to-date, high-value notes curated from original research and the most relevant sources, reflecting current trends and highly relevant to the UPSC CSE.
  3. Personalised Mentoring and Zoom doubt sessions: Regular mentoring sessions to provide personalised guidance and support.
  4. Test Series: 8 test - Comprehensive test series with model answers and performance analysis.
  5. In-class Answer Writing Practice and PYQ analysis
  6. Dedicated Mapping Sessions: Special focus on the mapping section with dedicated classes and practice sessions.
  7. Access to exclusive Telegram group: Doubt session, group mentoring session, and information sharing.
  1. Comprehensive Syllabus Coverage.
  2. From NCERT to UPSC Level.
  3. In-class PYQ Analysis & discussion.
  4. Dedicated Mapping Sessions.
  5. Focus on conceptual clarity.
  6. Historiographical Perspective Building.
  7. In-class regular Answer Writing Practise.
  8. Embedded Test Series.
  • Live Class timings (Both Online/Offline mode) – Monday to Friday – 8:00 am to 10:30 am.
  • Each class video can be watched a maximum of three times (1 Live + 2 Times Recorded).
  • Handouts – Hard Copy for Offline students / Soft Copy for Online students.
  • The course validity end date will be the same for all the students, irrespective of their admission date.
  • All our lectures are under the license of copyright protection, under the Copyright Act 1957 (the Act), supported by the Copyright Rules 1958 (the Rules), International Copyright Order, 1999 and Copyright Act in 2012. So copying our videos, illegal piracy, downloads, sharing, distribution etc. are strictly not allowed. We will take strict legal action against people doing so.
  • We have embedded tracking of video usage with the location, IP and we collect data on the video usage to check if there are any suspicious downloads of video happening with some third-party software. In such cases, the culprits will not be given any warning from our end; instead, strict legal action will be enforced.
  • Sharing of the user’s login and password is strictly prohibited. If any student is found doing so, his account would be suspended, and we will file a legal case of data theft and piracy against the student. Please do not share logins with your friends; else you will be in deep trouble.
  • There is access limit for each student – based on the course validity (date mentioned in the course features) and the total duration for which a student can watch any particular video (three times of the length of the video). Under no circumstance requests to extend the validity or increase the view duration will be entertained.
  • You may be mandatorily required to register the device from which you will be permitted to access the student portal to consume the online services. LevelUP IAS withholds the right to keep the number of devices registered limited.
  • Students are advised to have minimum internet speed of 2 Mbps for smooth experience. For mobile, videos run efficiently on 4G networks.
DOWNLOAD PDF

HISTORY

PAPER-I

  1. Sources

Archaeological sources:

Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments.

Literary sources:

Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.

Foreign account: Greek, Chinese, and Arab writers.

  1. Pre-history and Proto-history:

Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

  1. Indus Valley Civilization:

Origin, date, extent, characteristics-decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

  1. Megalithic Cultures:

Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

  1. Aryans and Vedic Period:

Expansions of Aryans in India:

Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social, and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

  1. Period of Mahajanapadas:

Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Mecedonian invasions and their impact.

  1. Mauryan Empire:

Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration, Economy; Art, architecture, and sculpture; External contacts. Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.

Disintegration of the empire; sungas and Kanvas.

 

  1. Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):

Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature, and science.

  1. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan, and South India:

Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, Economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

  1. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:

Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education, and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

  1. Regional States during Gupta Era:

The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakit movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chaluky as of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; Local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

  1. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

  1. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:

 — Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the peninsula, origin, and the rise of Rajputs.

 — The Cholas: administration, village economy and society “Indian Feudalism”.

 — Agrarian economy and urban settlements.

 — Trade and commerce.

 — Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order.

 — Condition of women.

 — Indian science and technology.

 

  1. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:

 — Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and BrahmaMimansa.

 — Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam, and its arrival in India, Sufism.

 — Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan's Rajtarangini, Alberuni's India.

 — Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting.

  1. The Thirteenth Century:

 — Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions - factors behind Ghurian success.

 — Economic, Social, and cultural consequences.

 — Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.

 — Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.

  1. The Fourteenth Century:

 — “The Khalji Revolution”.

 — Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measure.

 — Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.

 — Firuz Tugluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the

Sultanate, foreign contacts, and Ibn Battuta's account.

  1. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:

 — Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement.

 — Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literaute in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture.

— Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade, and commerce.

  1. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century-Political Developments and Economy:

 — Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat.

 — Malwa, Bahmanids.

 — The Vijayanagara Empire.

 — Lodis.

 — Mughal Empire, first phase: Babur, Humayun.

 — The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration.

 — Portuguese colonial enterprise, Bhakti, and Sufi Movements.

  1. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century- Society and culture:

 — Regional cultures specificities.

 — Literary traditions.

 — Provincial architectural.

 — Society, culture, literature, and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

  1. Akbar:

 — Conquests and consolidation of empire.

 — Establishment of jagir and mansab systems.

 — Rajput policy.

 — Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy.

 — Court patronage of art and technology.

  1. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:

 — Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.

 — The Empire and the Zamindars.

 — Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan, and Aurangzeb.

 — Nature of the Mughal State.

 — Late Seventeenth Century crisis and the revolts.

 — The Ahom kingdom.

 — Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

  1. Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th Centuries:

 — Population Agricultural and craft production.

 — Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies: a trade revolution.

 — Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance, and credit systems.

 — Conditions of peasants, Condition of Women.

 — Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth.

 

  1. Culture during Mughal Empire:

 — Persian histories and other literature.

 — Hindi and religious literatures.

 — Mughal architecture.

 — Mughal painting.

 — Provincial architecture and painting.

 — Classical music.

 — Science and technology.

  1. The Eighteenth Century:

 — Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.

 — The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh.

 — Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.

 — The Maratha fiscal and financial system.

 — Emergence of Afghan power Battle of Panipat, 1761.

 — State of, political, cultural, and economic, on eve of the British conquest.

 HISTORY

PAPER-II

  1. European Penetration into India:

The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal-The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

  1. British Expansion in India:

Bengal-Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

  1. Early Structure of the British Raj:

The Early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct contol; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt's India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The Voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

  1. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:

(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.

(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

  1. Social and Cultural Developments:

The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature, and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular

literature; Progress of Science; Christian missionary activities in India.

  1. Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and Other Areas:

Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism-the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

  1. Indian Response to British Rule:

Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857

—Origin, character, casuses of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

  1. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian

National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

  1. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi's popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
  2. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.
  3. Other strands in the National Movement.

The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P. the Madras Presidency, Outside India.

The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

  1. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.
  2. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru's Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.
  3. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward Castes and Tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.
  4. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of Science.
  5. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:

(i) Major Ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau.

(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies.

(iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

  1. Origins of Modern Politics:

(i) European States System.

(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.

(iii) French Revolution and Aftermath, 1789-1815.

(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.

(v) British Democratic politics, 1815-1850: Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

  1. Industrialization:

(i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society.

(ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan.

(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

  1. Nation-State System:

(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century.

(ii) Nationalism: State-building in Germany and Italy.

(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the World.

  1. Imperialism and Colonialism:

(i) South and South-East Asia.

(ii) Latin America and South Africa.

(iii) Australia.

(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

  1. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:

(i) 19th Century European revolutions.

(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921.

(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy, and Germany.

(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949.

  1. World Wars:

(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications.

(ii) World War I: Causes and Consequences.

(iii) World War II: Causes and Consequences.

  1. The World after World War II:

(i) Emergence of Two power blocs.

(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment.

(iii) UNO and the global disputes.

  1. Liberation from Colonial Rule:

(i) Latin America-Bolivar.

(ii) Arab World-Egypt.

(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy.

(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam.

  1. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:

(i) Factors constraining Development; Latin America, Africa.

  1. Unification of Europe:

(i) Post War Foundations, NATO, and European Community.

(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community

(iii) European Union.

  1. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:

(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union, 1985-1991.

(ii) Political Changes in East Europe 1989-2001.

(iii) End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.

GET IN TOUCH

Please enter a 10-digit phone number.

Course Fee

   Offline Mode: ₹ 47,000
   Online Mode: ₹ 45,000

Comprehensive GS Foundation Program + History Optional

Course Fee

   Offline Mode: ₹ 1,47,000 1,20,000
   Online Mode: ₹ 1,35,000 1,10,000

Program Inclusions

Key Features

Other Details

Note

Syllabus

  1. Comprehensive Coverage of Syllabus: Detailed lectures and notes covering the entire syllabus of both Paper I and Paper II.
  2. Class Handouts, Notes, and Reference Material: Up-to-date, high-value notes curated from original research and the most relevant sources, reflecting current trends and highly relevant to the UPSC CSE.
  3. Personalised Mentoring and Zoom doubt sessions: Regular mentoring sessions to provide personalised guidance and support.
  4. Test Series: 8 test - Comprehensive test series with model answers and performance analysis.
  5. In-class Answer Writing Practice and PYQ analysis
  6. Dedicated Mapping Sessions: Special focus on the mapping section with dedicated classes and practice sessions.
  7. Access to exclusive Telegram group: Doubt session, group mentoring session, and information sharing.
  1. Comprehensive Syllabus Coverage.
  2. From NCERT to UPSC Level.
  3. In-class PYQ Analysis & discussion.
  4. Dedicated Mapping Sessions.
  5. Focus on conceptual clarity.
  6. Historiographical Perspective Building.
  7. In-class regular Answer Writing Practise.
  8. Embedded Test Series.
  • Live Class timings (Both Online/Offline mode) – Monday to Friday – 8:00 am to 10:30 am.
  • Each class video can be watched a maximum of three times (1 Live + 2 Times Recorded).
  • Handouts – Hard Copy for Offline students / Soft Copy for Online students.
  • The course validity end date will be the same for all the students, irrespective of their admission date.
  • All our lectures are under the license of copyright protection, under the Copyright Act 1957 (the Act), supported by the Copyright Rules 1958 (the Rules), International Copyright Order, 1999 and Copyright Act in 2012. So copying our videos, illegal piracy, downloads, sharing, distribution etc. are strictly not allowed. We will take strict legal action against people doing so.
  • We have embedded tracking of video usage with the location, IP and we collect data on the video usage to check if there are any suspicious downloads of video happening with some third-party software. In such cases, the culprits will not be given any warning from our end; instead, strict legal action will be enforced.
  • Sharing of the user’s login and password is strictly prohibited. If any student is found doing so, his account would be suspended, and we will file a legal case of data theft and piracy against the student. Please do not share logins with your friends; else you will be in deep trouble.
  • There is access limit for each student – based on the course validity (date mentioned in the course features) and the total duration for which a student can watch any particular video (three times of the length of the video). Under no circumstance requests to extend the validity or increase the view duration will be entertained.
  • You may be mandatorily required to register the device from which you will be permitted to access the student portal to consume the online services. LevelUP IAS withholds the right to keep the number of devices registered limited.
  • Students are advised to have minimum internet speed of 2 Mbps for smooth experience. For mobile, videos run efficiently on 4G networks.
DOWNLOAD PDF

HISTORY

PAPER-I

  1. Sources

Archaeological sources:

Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments.

Literary sources:

Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.

Foreign account: Greek, Chinese, and Arab writers.

  1. Pre-history and Proto-history:

Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

  1. Indus Valley Civilization:

Origin, date, extent, characteristics-decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

  1. Megalithic Cultures:

Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

  1. Aryans and Vedic Period:

Expansions of Aryans in India:

Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social, and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

  1. Period of Mahajanapadas:

Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Mecedonian invasions and their impact.

  1. Mauryan Empire:

Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration, Economy; Art, architecture, and sculpture; External contacts. Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.

Disintegration of the empire; sungas and Kanvas.

 

  1. Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):

Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature, and science.

  1. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan, and South India:

Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, Economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

  1. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:

Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education, and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

  1. Regional States during Gupta Era:

The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakit movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chaluky as of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; Local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

  1. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

  1. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:

 — Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the peninsula, origin, and the rise of Rajputs.

 — The Cholas: administration, village economy and society “Indian Feudalism”.

 — Agrarian economy and urban settlements.

 — Trade and commerce.

 — Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order.

 — Condition of women.

 — Indian science and technology.

 

  1. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:

 — Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and BrahmaMimansa.

 — Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam, and its arrival in India, Sufism.

 — Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan's Rajtarangini, Alberuni's India.

 — Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting.

  1. The Thirteenth Century:

 — Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions - factors behind Ghurian success.

 — Economic, Social, and cultural consequences.

 — Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.

 — Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.

  1. The Fourteenth Century:

 — “The Khalji Revolution”.

 — Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measure.

 — Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.

 — Firuz Tugluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the

Sultanate, foreign contacts, and Ibn Battuta's account.

  1. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:

 — Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement.

 — Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literaute in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture.

— Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade, and commerce.

  1. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century-Political Developments and Economy:

 — Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat.

 — Malwa, Bahmanids.

 — The Vijayanagara Empire.

 — Lodis.

 — Mughal Empire, first phase: Babur, Humayun.

 — The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration.

 — Portuguese colonial enterprise, Bhakti, and Sufi Movements.

  1. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century- Society and culture:

 — Regional cultures specificities.

 — Literary traditions.

 — Provincial architectural.

 — Society, culture, literature, and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

  1. Akbar:

 — Conquests and consolidation of empire.

 — Establishment of jagir and mansab systems.

 — Rajput policy.

 — Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy.

 — Court patronage of art and technology.

  1. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:

 — Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.

 — The Empire and the Zamindars.

 — Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan, and Aurangzeb.

 — Nature of the Mughal State.

 — Late Seventeenth Century crisis and the revolts.

 — The Ahom kingdom.

 — Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

  1. Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th Centuries:

 — Population Agricultural and craft production.

 — Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies: a trade revolution.

 — Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance, and credit systems.

 — Conditions of peasants, Condition of Women.

 — Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth.

 

  1. Culture during Mughal Empire:

 — Persian histories and other literature.

 — Hindi and religious literatures.

 — Mughal architecture.

 — Mughal painting.

 — Provincial architecture and painting.

 — Classical music.

 — Science and technology.

  1. The Eighteenth Century:

 — Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.

 — The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh.

 — Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.

 — The Maratha fiscal and financial system.

 — Emergence of Afghan power Battle of Panipat, 1761.

 — State of, political, cultural, and economic, on eve of the British conquest.

 HISTORY

PAPER-II

  1. European Penetration into India:

The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal-The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

  1. British Expansion in India:

Bengal-Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

  1. Early Structure of the British Raj:

The Early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct contol; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt's India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The Voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

  1. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:

(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.

(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

  1. Social and Cultural Developments:

The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature, and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular

literature; Progress of Science; Christian missionary activities in India.

  1. Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and Other Areas:

Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism-the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

  1. Indian Response to British Rule:

Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857

—Origin, character, casuses of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

  1. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian

National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

  1. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi's popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
  2. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.
  3. Other strands in the National Movement.

The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P. the Madras Presidency, Outside India.

The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

  1. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.
  2. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru's Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.
  3. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward Castes and Tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.
  4. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of Science.
  5. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:

(i) Major Ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau.

(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies.

(iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

  1. Origins of Modern Politics:

(i) European States System.

(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.

(iii) French Revolution and Aftermath, 1789-1815.

(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.

(v) British Democratic politics, 1815-1850: Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

  1. Industrialization:

(i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society.

(ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan.

(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

  1. Nation-State System:

(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century.

(ii) Nationalism: State-building in Germany and Italy.

(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the World.

  1. Imperialism and Colonialism:

(i) South and South-East Asia.

(ii) Latin America and South Africa.

(iii) Australia.

(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

  1. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:

(i) 19th Century European revolutions.

(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921.

(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy, and Germany.

(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949.

  1. World Wars:

(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications.

(ii) World War I: Causes and Consequences.

(iii) World War II: Causes and Consequences.

  1. The World after World War II:

(i) Emergence of Two power blocs.

(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment.

(iii) UNO and the global disputes.

  1. Liberation from Colonial Rule:

(i) Latin America-Bolivar.

(ii) Arab World-Egypt.

(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy.

(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam.

  1. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:

(i) Factors constraining Development; Latin America, Africa.

  1. Unification of Europe:

(i) Post War Foundations, NATO, and European Community.

(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community

(iii) European Union.

  1. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:

(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union, 1985-1991.

(ii) Political Changes in East Europe 1989-2001.

(iii) End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.