IT & Computers (DAMP)
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- Elaborate on the functioning of quantum computers, highlight the hurdles for achieving scalable progress in this technology. Also. emphasize the importance of National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications (NM-QTA).
- Additive manufacturing has many advantages over subtractive manufacturing. Discuss the uses of additive manufacturing in different fields. Mention the issues related to Additive manufacturing in India.
Q: Elaborate on the functioning of quantum computers, highlight the hurdles for achieving scalable progress in this technology. Also. emphasize the importance of National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications (NM-QTA). (15 Marks, 250 words)
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Quantum computing merges quantum mechanics, information theory, and computer science. It utilizes quantum phenomena like superposition, entanglement, and tunnelling for rapid computation. Quantum bits (qubits) encode information, capable of being both 1 and 0 simultaneously. Thousands of entangled qubits allow parallel calculations.
However, quantum computing faces challenges:
- Quantum State Conversion: Creating quantum states from classical data remains a challenge.
- Fan-Out Challenge: Scaling qubit numbers within a chip requires intricate control setups, currently making systems large.
- Loss of Coherence: External interactions like vibrations and temperature fluctuations can destroy quantum properties.
- Qubit Quality: Errors in the physical system can lead to incorrect outputs.
- Space Constraint: Complex error correction algorithms consume qubits, leaving fewer for computation.
The National Mission on Quantum Technologies & Applications (NM-QTA), funded at Rs 8000 Crore, holds significance as it:
- Secures Communications: Quantum technologies can revolutionize computation, communication, and encryption, enhancing communication security and financial transactions.
- Diverse Applications: From aerospace to agriculture, quantum tech aids sectors like simulations, cyber security, manufacturing, health, and education.
- Boosts Research: The mission promotes fundamental science, technology development, innovation, startups, and human resources, aligned with national priorities.
- Economic Growth: By fostering innovation, employment, and economic progress, the mission enhances the nation’s quality of life.
- Global Competitiveness: In a transformed geopolitical landscape, embracing disruptive technologies like quantum computing ensures a competitive edge.
Through the NM-QTA, India aligns with emerging technological trends, positioning itself at the forefront of quantum technology development.
Q: Additive manufacturing has many advantages over subtractive manufacturing. Discuss the uses of additive manufacturing in different fields. Mention the issues related to Additive manufacturing in India. (15 Marks, 250 Words)
Additive manufacturing is the process of making 3D objects from a digital file, so this process is famously known as 3D printing too. In an additive process a 3D object is created by laying down successive layers of material until the object is created.
· Subtractive manufacturing is the conventional method of manufacturing which is cutting out or hollowing out a piece of metal or plastic with for instance a milling machine.
Advantages of Additive Manufacturing over Subtractive Manufacturing:
· Accelerated prototyping: Additive manufacturing (AM) expedites product development by enabling the creation of many varying prototypes that can be produced faster and cheaper in comparison to lengthy traditional methods.
· Energy savings: AM uses fewer resources by requiring less ancillary equipment, reducing waste material compared to conventional manufacturing processes with higher energy needs.
· Environment benefits: Additive manufacturing (AM) reduces waste and saves energy, making it an environmentally friendly choice for businesses improving manufacturing sustainability.
· Material waste reduction: AM starts from scratch, adding material to create parts, reducing waste by using only the necessary substance, unlike conventional manufacturing that involves removing material from larger pieces.
Uses of Additive Manufacturing (AM) in Different Fields:
· Aerospace: AM is used to produce lightweight aircraft components, such as turbine blades, fuel nozzles, brackets, and structural parts, allowing for improved performance and fuel efficiency.
Ø For instance, Airbus has employed 3D printing to produce parts such as brackets, hinges, and fuselage components.
· Automotive: AM enables the production of complex geometries and customized parts, including prototypes, interior components, engine components, and lightweight structures.
Ø For instance, Grippers can be 3D printed with intricate shapes and patterns to achieve optimal grasping and manipulation of objects in manufacturing and assembly processes.
· Healthcare: AM is used to produce patient-specific medical implants, prosthetics, surgical guides, anatomical models, and dental aligners, leading to improved patient outcomes and personalized care.
Ø For example, 3D printing is used to create implants such as cranial plates, hip and knee implants, spinal cages, and dental implants.
· Education and Research: AM is used in educational institutions and research labs for teaching design and engineering principles, prototyping, and conducting experiments in various fields.
· Electronics: AM is employed in the production of electronic components like circuit boards, antennas, sensors, and customized casings, enabling miniaturization, prototyping, and functional integration.
- Energy: AM is used in the energy sector for producing components for renewable energy systems, such as wind turbine blades, solar panels, and fuel cells, enhancing energy efficiency and sustainability.
Issues related to Additive Manufacturing:
· High cost of equipment and material due to dependence on import: Building a 3D printer can be costly, and resource companies are reluctant to use 3D printed parts without warranty coverage.
· Lack of formal industry standards: Since 3D printing is a very niche and new domain, there are no global qualifications and certification norms.
· Risk of Job Losses: In the initial meetings on the subject, there was a lot of resistance on whether this technology would eat into the jobs of highly skilled workers in the medical equipment or aerospace technology sectors.
· Lack of skilled manpower.
· Uncertainty in the regulatory and legal framework Government of India has launched ‘National Strategy for Additive Manufacturing (NSAM)’ to address the above concerns and to develop domestic capabilities and to reskill professionals which will reduce cost and improve
adoption. This strategy aims to capture 5% of Global market share of 3D printing and add $ 1 billion to GDP by 2025.