E-technology in the aid of farmers (DAMP)
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- Analyze the role of government policies and initiatives in promoting agriculture mechanization in India. Assess the effectiveness of existing schemes and suggest measures to further encourage the adoption of mechanized farming techniques. (15 Marks, 250 words)
- Climate-smart agriculture will contribute to the attainment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 2030.
Q: Analyze the role of government policies and initiatives in promoting agriculture mechanization in India. Assess the effectiveness of existing schemes and suggest measures to further encourage the adoption of mechanized farming techniques. (15 Marks, 250 words)
Mechanization of agriculture refers to the application of machinery and technology in various farming operations to enhance efficiency, productivity, and precision in agricultural practices. It has transformed various aspects of farming, including land preparation, planting, irrigation, crop maintenance, harvesting, post-harvest handling, and storage.
Impact of these Schemes:
- Under SMAM, as of Dec 2022, more than 21,000 CHCs and more than 18,000 farm machinery banks have been established.
- Indian Tractor Industry is the largest in the world accounting for one-third of the total production.
- Overall, Agri mechanization has increased in the country, which has led to increase in Agri productivity, reduction in labor drudgery, and overall positive impact on rural development.
Why lack of adoption of mechanized farming techniques:
- Affordability: High costs and limited credit options make it difficult for farmers, especially small-scale ones, to afford machinery.
- Lack of awareness: Limited exposure and knowledge about benefits, operation, and maintenance of machinery impede adoption.
- Social and cultural factors: Cultural norms and attachment to traditional methods influence farmers’ preference for manual labor over mechanization.
- Fragmented market: Limited availability and high costs due to a fragmented machinery market impede adoption.
Measures to encourage the adoption of mechanized farming techniques:
- Consolidation of landholding can go a long way in ensuring the benefits of agricultural mechanization.
- Enhancement of the availability and affordability of credit for farmers to purchase machinery.
- Innovating a rental model by institutionalizing high-cost farm machinery such as combine harvester, sugarcane harvester etc. to reduce the cost of operation.
- Encouraging FPOs to pool resources, negotiate better prices, and collectively benefit from mechanizations.
- Promoting indigenous industry in the farm equipment sector to reduce the cost and to promote more R&D in the farm equipment sector.
- Public Private Partnership (PPP) can facilitate technology transfer, provide access to quality machinery, offer maintenance, and repair services and ensure availability of spare parts and technical support.
- Farmer Education and Training Programs need to be strengthened. It would enable farmers to better operate the new machinery and contribute to skill development of youth for new kinds of jobs in rural areas.
By continually refining policies, increasing support mechanisms, and engaging stakeholders at all levels, India can further encourage the adoption of mechanized farming techniques. This will contribute to sustainable agricultural growth, improved livelihoods for farmers, and the overall development of the agriculture sector in the country.
Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) is an integrated and sustainable approach to farming that addresses the
challenges of food security and climate change by optimizing resource use, enhancing resilience, and minimizing environmental impacts across various agricultural sectors. Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) tackles food security and climate change by holistically managing croplands, livestock, forests, and fisheries. Farmer-centric programs like Soil Health Cards and Neem-coated urea enhance climate-smart practices.
Key pillars of Climate Smart Agriculture
- Food security refers to increasing agricultural productivity, utilizing techniques like precision irrigation and multi-cropping.
- Adaptation involves modifying farming methods to bolster resilience against climate change, employing strategies such as cultivating drought-resistant crops and implementing agroforestry and rainwater harvesting.
- Mitigation encompasses curbing greenhouse gas emissions and optimizing carbon sequestration in
agriculture, utilizing approaches like conservation tillage, and adopting solar pumps.
Role of Climate Smart Agriculture in achieving Sustainable Development Goals 2030
- Poverty alleviation (SDG 1): CSA fosters inclusive farming, benefiting rural poor dependent on agriculture through increased incomes.
Ø Initiatives like CGIAR and NDDB advocate mixed farming for income diversification.
- Food security (SDG 2) is bolstered by CSA, enabling sustainable yield increases, reduced post-harvest losses, and improved access to nutritious food.
Ø Programs like PM Krishi Sinchai Yojana financially support micro-irrigation adoption for enhanced
- Environmental conservation (SDGs 7, 14, 15) is promoted through CSA practices, endorsing renewable energy use, soil health preservation, and water conservation.
Ø Schemes such as KUSUM (solar power in agriculture) and Sahi Fasal campaign align with these goals.
- Climate change mitigation (SDG 13) is facilitated by CSA’s climate-friendly practices, curbing greenhouse gas emissions.
Ø Initiatives like PM PRANAM and Parmparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana contribute to this objective.
- Offering farmers credit linked to CSA practices as incentive for adoption.
- Delivering localized extension services via mobile phones to facilitate understanding.
- Promoting Agri-startups for accessible solutions in soil testing, disaster alerts, and farm management.
- Following global best practices like FAO, WB, UNFCCC standards to ensure quality and effectiveness.
Climate Smart Agriculture presents a transformative approach to tackle food security, climate change, and
sustainable development. Through CSA, we can establish resilient agricultural systems which will contribute to a more sustainable and inclusive future for future generations.