Mental Health in India
GS- II >> Social Justice >> Health
Context: Big Tech will always be bad for mental health.
About Mental Health in India:
- Mental health is an integral part of health; it is more than the absence of mental illnesses.
- It is the foundation for the well-being and effective functioning of individuals. It includes mental well-being, prevention of mental disorders, treatment and rehabilitation.
- WHO estimates that the burden of mental health problems in India is 2443 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per 10000 populations; the age-adjusted suicide rate per 100000 population is 21.1.
- WHO has labelled India as the world’s ‘most depressing country’.
Issues related to mental healthcare:
- Lack of sensitivity: People with any kind of mental health issues are often tagged as ‘lunatics’ by society.
- Lack of access, affordability, and awareness: The National Mental Health Survey (NMHS), 2015-16 found that nearly 80% of those suffering from mental disorders did not receive treatment for over a year.
- This survey also identified large treatment gaps in mental healthcare, ranging from 28% to 83% across different mental disorders (National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), 2016).
- The stigma around mental health issues: This leads to a vicious cycle of shame, suffering and isolation of the patients.
- Lack of state services and insurance coverage: Results in most expenses on treatment when sought being out-of-pocket expenses, thus worsening the economic strain on the poor and vulnerable.
- Economic burden: NMHS (2015-16) revealed that the median out-of-pocket expenditure by families on treatment and travel to access care was 1,000-1,500 per month.
- WHO estimates the economic loss to India on account of mental health disorders to be US$ 1.03 trillion.
- To address the burden of mental disorders, the Government of India is implementing the National Mental Health Program (NMHP) since 1982.
- Establishment of Centres of Excellence and strengthening/ establishment of Postgraduate (PG) Departments in mental health specialties.
- To generate awareness among the masses about mental illnesses Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities are an integral part of the NMHP.
- The Mental Health Policy, of 2014 upholds a participatory and rights-based approach to quality service provisions.
- The Mental Healthcare Act, of 2017 provides the legal framework for providing services to protect, promote and fulfil the rights of people with mental illnesses.
- These are in line with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (UNCRPD).
- Mental Healthcare Act, 2017(MHA): Significant provisions of MHA, 2017:
- As part of Section 19, the government was responsible for creating opportunities to access less restrictive options for community living such as halfway homes, sheltered accommodations, rehab homes, and supported accommodations.
- Under Section 5 of the Act, people are empowered to make ‘advance directives. They can nominate a representative for themselves, thereby potentially helping to eliminate absolute forms of guardianship in favour of supported decision-making.
- Mandates: All States are required to establish a State Mental Health Authority and Mental Health Review Boards (MHRB) bodies that can further draft standards for mental healthcare institutes.
GS- III >> Science & Technology >> Emerging Technology
Context: Recent viral video of actress is a deepfake, highlighting the spread of deepfakes using AI tools.
About Deep-fake technology:
- Deepfake technology is a method that leverages powerful computers and deep learning to manipulate videos, images, and audios.
- Its applications include generating fake news, committing financial fraud, and various illicit activities.
- Cybercriminals utilize Artificial Intelligence technology to create deceptive content.
- Origin of the term:
- The term ‘deepfake’ originated in 2017 when an anonymous Reddit user self-identified as ‘Deepfakes.’
- This user harnessed Google’s open-source deep-learning technology to produce and share pornographic videos.
Key aspects of deep-fake technology:
- Face swapping: Deepfake technology can swap one person’s face onto another person’s body in videos or images. This involves training a neural network on large datasets of the target person’s face and then superimposing it onto the source video.
- Voice synthesis: Deepfake technology can also be used to synthesize human-like voices. By training on an individual’s voice data, it can create audio that mimics the target’s speech patterns.
- Realistic results: One of the notable features of deepfakes is their ability and convincing content. These manipulations can be challenging to detect with the naked eye or ear.
- Potential uses: While deepfake technology has raised concerns about misuse for deceptive purposes, it has some legitimate applications. For example, it can be used in the film industry for special effects and in voice assistants to generate more natural-sounding interactions.
Concerns regarding deep-fake technology:
- The Bletchley Declaration, signed by 28 countries, including the US, UK, France, China, Japan, and India, and calls for global action.
- Challenges in deepfake life cycle: Deepfake life cycle consists of creation, dissemination, and detection.
- Countries like China require consent, identity verification, and recourse for deepfake technology providers. Canada focuses on awareness campaigns and possible legislation to combat malicious deepfakes.
- Challenges in content moderation: Vague terms in content moderation like “making reasonable efforts” and “acting on” user complaints pose challenges for platforms.
- Detecting deepfakes: Detecting deepfake videos is increasingly difficult due to AI advancements.
Are deepfakes always malicious?
- Not all deepfakes are malicious: Deepfakes serve a variety of purposes, not all of which are harmful. They can be entertaining and even helpful, such as restoring lost voices due to illness or animating art exhibitions. In the entertainment industry, they can improve dubbing in films and even resurrect deceased actors.
- Misuse of deepfake technology: Deepfake technology is increasingly misused for malicious purposes, such as scams, hoaxes, celebrity pornography, etc.
- Notable personalities, including former U.S. Presidents like Barack Obama and Donald Trump, as well as India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi, have been impersonated using deepfakes.
- IT Act of 2000 (Section 66E): Addresses deepfake crimes involving capturing, publishing, or transmitting a person’s images in mass media, potentially resulting in imprisonment or fines.
- IT Act of 2000 (Section 66D): Allows prosecution of individuals who maliciously use communication devices or computer resources to cheat or impersonate someone, with penalties including imprisonment and fines.
- Copyright Protection under the Indian Copyright Act of 1957: Safeguards works like films and music, allowing copyright owners to take legal action against unauthorized use of their content, with penalties outlined in Section 51.
- The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting issued an advisory on January 9, 2023, recommending media organizations to label potentially manipulated content as ‘manipulated’ or ‘modified’ for viewer awareness.
Global response towards deep-fake technology:
- Regulatory responses may include explicit labelling and traceability for manipulated content, as seen in China’s approach.
- Other nations are exploring regulations and safeguards to curb the harmful impact of deepfakes on society.
- Deepfake technology’s misuse raises concerns globally, necessitating coordinated efforts to combat its detrimental effects and protect individuals from deception and fraud.
- Social media platform responsibility: Cases like Karen Hepp v Facebook highlight the need for stricter regulation on deepfake content in advertisements to protect individual rights and reputation.
- Government regulations: According to the EU’s AI Act, regulations can ensure transparency and accountability in advertising practices.
- Proposed legislation: The US government has proposed the Deep Fakes Accountability Bill, 2023, which aims to address deepfake issues.
- Legal frameworks, such as the Digital Personal Data Protection Act, 2023, and the Consumer Protection Act, 2019, may require harmonization and cross-referencing to effectively regulate AI and its use cases in the consumer market.
- Comprehensive guidelines: Issuing comprehensive guidelines under the Consumer Protection Act to mandate advertisers and social media platforms to disclose the usage of deepfakes in advertisements.
- Inclusion of AI-based deepfakes in the guidelines on dark patterns to address emerging trends.