Daily Current Affairs – Nov 18, 2023
GS- II >> Social Justice >> Government Scheme
Context: India’s market for technical textiles is targeted to touch $40 billion by 2030 from the current $23 billion as projected by textile ministry.
About Technical Textile:
- Technical textiles are defined as textile materials and products used primarily for their technical performance and functional properties rather than their aesthetic or decorative characteristics.
- Other terms used for defining technical textiles include industrial textiles, functional textiles, performance textiles, engineering textiles, invisible textiles, and hi-tech textiles.
- Technical textiles are used individually or as a component/part of another product.
- Technical textiles are used individually to satisfy specific functions such as fire-retardant fabric for uniforms of firemen.
- As a component or part of another product, they are used to enhance the strength, performance, or other functional properties of that product.
- Technical Textiles’ products are divided into 12 broad categories. (Agrotech, Buildtech, Clothtech, Geotech, Hometech, Indutech, Mobiltech, Meditech, Protech, Sportstech, Oekotech, Packtech) depending upon their application areas.
Characteristics or benefits of Technical Textile:
- Health & safety.
- Cost effectiveness.
- High strength.
- Light weight.
- User friendliness.
- Eco friendliness.
- Logistical convenience etc.
Unlike conventional textiles used traditionally for clothing or furnishing, technical textiles are used basically on account of their specific physical and functional properties and mostly by other user industries.
About National Technical Textile Mission:
- The Government has launched the National Technical Textiles Mission for a period of 4 years (2020 21 to 2023-24) which is extended to 2026, with an outlay of Rs.1480 crores.
- Fund distributed in following segments:
- Research, Innovation & Development: with outlay of Rs. 1000 Crore. This component will promote both.
- Fundamental research at fibre level aiming at path breaking technological products in Carbon Fibre, Aramid Fibre, Nylon Fibre, and Composites and application-based research in geo-textiles, agro textiles, medical textiles, mobile textiles etc.
- Promotion and Market Development: The Mission will aim at average growth rate of 15-20% per annum taking the level of domestic market size to 40-50 Billion USD by the year 2024 under ‘Make in India’ initiative.
- Export Promotion: ensuring 10% average growth in exports per year up to 2023-24.
- An Export Promotion Council for Technical Textiles will be set up for effective coordination and promotion activities in the segment.
- Education, Training, Skill Development: The Mission will promote technical education at higher engineering and technology levels related to technical textiles and its application areas covering engineering, medical, agriculture, aquaculture, and dairy segments.
- The scope of use of technical textiles encompasses a wide range of applications such as agro-textiles, medical textiles, geo-textiles, protection textiles, industrial-textiles, sports textiles, and many other usages.
- India shares nearly 6% of world market size of 250 billion USD. However, the annual average growth of the segment is 12%, as compared to 4% world average growth.
- Penetration level of technical textiles is low in India at 5-10%, against 30-70% in advanced countries.
Benefits of technical textile in various sectors:
- Increased productivity in agriculture, horticulture, and aquaculture fields,
- Better protection of military, paramilitary, police, and security forces,
- Stronger and sturdier transportation infrastructure for highways, railways, ports, and airports
- Improving hygiene and healthcare of general public.
GS- II >> Social Justice >> Health
Context: The United Kingdom’s drug regulator recently approved the world’s first gene therapy treatment for sickle cell disease and thalassemia.
About Sickle Cell Disease:
- Inherited blood disorder marked by flawed hemoglobin.
- Hemoglobin S distorts red blood cells into a sickle shape.
- Interferes with oxygen delivery to tissues.
- Sickle-shaped RBCs block blood flow due to genetic mutation.
- Caused by a defective sickle cell gene inherited from both parents.
- Symptoms include anaemia, pain, organ damage, and infections.
- Treatments include bone marrow transplant and ongoing research into gene therapy.
- UK recently approved gene therapy treatment for sickle cell disease.
- Inherited blood disorder due to insufficient hemoglobin production.
- Reduced hemoglobin affects the functionality and lifespan of red blood cells (RBCs).
- Insufficient healthy RBCs result in inadequate oxygen delivery to cells, causing anaemia.
- Anaemia may lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
- Severity varies, with severe cases posing organ damage and potential fatality.
- Treatable with blood transfusions and chelation therapy for effective management.
GS- II >> International Relations >> Regional Groupings
Context: Recently, India hosted the second Voice of Global South Summit (VOGSS)
About Voice of Global South Summit (VOGSS):
- It focused on ways to sustain the momentum generated toward a more inclusive, representative, and progressive world order.
- Indian PM unveils DAKSHIN (Global South Centre of Excellence) and called for 5 ‘Cs’ for the Global South viz. Consultation, Cooperation, Communication, Creativity, and Capacity building.
- India previously hosted the first VOGSS, where 125 Global South countries came together with the theme ‘Unity of Voice, Unity of Purpose.’
About Global South:
- The term ‘Global South’ refers to various countries often described as ‘developing,’ ‘less developed’ or ‘underdeveloped.’
- The concept of the Global South can be traced to the Brandt report of 1980.
Need for South-South Cooperation:
- To address the disproportionate impact of global challenges such as climate change.
- To improve representation in global forums such as the UN Security Council.
- To achieve food and energy security.
- To fulfil sustainable development goals.
India’s Initiatives for South-South Cooperation:
- Inducting African Union in G20 Grouping.
- Institutional initiatives such as the International Solar Alliance, Global Biofuel Alliance, Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure, etc.
- MAHARISHI for global food security.
- G20 Digital Public Infrastructure Framework.
- Proposal for weather and climate monitoring satellite for Global South.
GS- III >> Economy >> Banking & Finance
Context: Chief Economic Adviser of India raised concern over the use of World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators in ratings assessment by credit ratings agencies, especially for emerging economies.
About Worldwide Governance Indicator (WGI):
- Released by the World Bank.
- Provides a ranking of 215 countries’ territories.
- Based on six dimensions of governance: 1. ‘Voice and Accountability’. 2. ‘Political Stability and Absence of Violence’. 3. ‘Government Effectiveness’. 4. ‘Regulatory Quality’. 5. ‘Rule of Law’. 6. ‘Control of Corruption’.
- Designed to assess broad patterns in perceptions of governance.
- Developed in 1999 by Daniel Kaufmann and Aart Kraay.
About World Bank:
- An international financial institution providing loans and granting to governments of low and middle-income/developing countries for capital projects.
- Established: Established at the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference, alongside the IMF.
- World Bank components:
- International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD): Provides loans, credits and grants.
- International Development Association (IDA): Offers low or no-interest loans to low-income countries.
- International Finance Cooperation (IFC): Provides investment, advice and asset management to private companies and governments.
- Multilateral Guarantee Agency (MIGA): Ensures leaders and investors against political risks like war.
- International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID): Settles investment disputes between investors and countries.
NOTE: India is not member of ICSID.
GS- III >> Science & Technology >> Space
Context: As per NASA’s James Webb Telescope discovery, exoplanet (any planet beyond solar system) named Wasp-107b consist water vapour, sulfur dioxide, and silicate sand clouds.
- Situated 200 light-years away in Virgo constellation.
- Almost the size of Jupiter but similar in mass to Neptune.
- About 30 times bigger than Earth, though it’s one of the lowest density planets known. Hence, called Fluffy Planet.
- Exhibits water cycle akin to Earth’s but instead of water droplets, planet experiences sand rain.
- Significance of discovery: Helps in tracing our own evolution, shedding light on how weather cycles impact planetary geography and how atmospheres influence weather patterns.